TCR Core Services
CORE SERVICE OFFERINGS
Mechanical and Physical Testing
TCR has a comprehensive range of Mechanical Testing services with a dedicated in-house machine shop that assists in sample preparation. Test specimens are duly prepared for metallic and non-metallic materials for the evaluation of Tensile, Compression, Impact, Weldability, Fatigue and Bend properties.
With its Mechanical Testing Facility, TCR provides a precise determination of Proof Stress by the attachment of various Electronic Extensometers. The Elevated Temperature Tensile Test is a special service offered by TCR. Tests are conducted as per ASTM, BS, IS, DIN, or other client-specified standards.
The Mechanical Testing Facility at TCR conducts tensile tests for understanding the strength and characteristics of a particular material. It provides a precise determination of Proof Stress by the attachment of various electronic controls and extensometers. Testing temperatures range from 80 °C to 1000 °C and beyond, for particularly high-temperature applications. The Mechanical Testing department at TCR performs a range of Impact tests, including Izod and Charpy, Charpy impact testing at temperatures from 100°C to -101 °C & -196°C. Highly specialized pressure test facilities are also frequently done at TCR's Mumbai Laboratory.
Mechanical Testing Facilities at TCR Conducts a Range of Physical Tests
TCR Engineering has state-of-the-art equipments available across different mechanical testing capabilities:
Universal Testing Machines
Fatigue System Universal Testing Machine in capacity of 50 KN and 250 KN
Universal Testing Machine (UTM) of 1000 KN capacity with Electronic Extensometer (Germany)
Model EU 40 UTM of 400 KN capacity with high Temperature (Germany)
Universal Testing Machine of 30000 lbs capacity with Electronic Controls and Extensometer (USA)
Erichsen Cupping Machine
Hydraulic Test Pump
Model MH 400 Micro Hardness Tester (USA)
Model HPO 250 Brinell / Vickers Hardness Tester (Germany)
Rockwell & Rockwell Superficial Hardness Testers
Model IT 40 Charpy Impact Tester as per ASTM & ISO standard (400 Joule)
Model IT 30 Charpy / Izod Impact Tester (300 Joule)
SANS -ZBC245C Charpy Impact Tester (750 Joule)
Complete workshop facilities including Lathe Machines, CNC wire cut machine, Hacksaw, Stress-free grinding equipment, Saws, Shaping Machine, Surface Grinding Machines, Milling Machines and Drilling Machines
Complete set of measuring and inspection instruments including Vernier Calipers, Micrometers, and Dial Gauges
Number of fixtures and attachments for various tests
TCR Engineering provides a diverse range of physical testing services that include:
Tensile / Transverse/Compression test
Tensile test with 0.2% proof stress, stress/strain diagram with electronic extensometer inclusive of sample machining charges
Tensile test at an elevated temperature of up to 1000 °C with Extensometer and without Extensometer upto elevated Temperature of 400 °C
Tensile (n.k.r. value) / composite / plastic / fabric
Tensile test for fine wires/foils
Full section Tensile test for steel bar up to 40 mm diameter
Bend test / Reverse bend / Re-bend / Root / Face / side bend test
Flattening / Flaring Test
Re- bend test including aging
Proof load test on Nut up to 40000 kg
Full-size breaking of bolt
Wedge load test / Head soundness test
Compression test of springs (up to 3 readings)
Tensile test for fine wires/foils
Charpy V notch Impact Test (a) R. T. inclusive of sample machining charges as per ASTM E23 (for a total set of 3 specimens and 3 readings)
Impact Test above and below 60°C
Rockwell Hardness tester (scale A, B, C )
Vickers Hardness tester (Micro/Macro indentation)
Brinell Hardness tester
Jominy End Quench Test (with normalizing heat treatment) as per ASTM A255
Sectional Weight of CTD/TMT/Reinforcement bars
Surface characteristics of CTD/TMT/Reinforcement bars
Hydraulic / Pneumatic Test inclusive of Sample Preparation Charges
Proof Load / Slip Test on Fabricated items such as clamps and assemblies
Load Test up to 800 kN
Residual Stress Measurement
Tensile & Bend Testing
A tensile test measures the resistance of a material to a static or slowly applied force. A machined specimen is placed in the testing machine and a load is applied. A strain gauge or extensometer is used to measure the elongation. The stress obtained at the highest applied force is known as Tensile Strength. The Yield Strength is the stress at which a prescribed amount of plastic deformation (commonly 0.2%) is produced. Elongation describes the extent to which the specimen is stretched before fracture. Information regarding the strength, stiffness, and ductility of a material is obtained from a tensile test. Other variations of the tensile testing include Room Temperature, Low Temperature (IS 1608 Part 3), Elevated Temperature (ASTM E21, ISO 6892-2), Shear strength, Temperature and Humidity, Combined Tension and Compression, Through Thickness Tensile, Notched Tensile and Strain-Hardening exponent ‘n’ (ASTM E646, IS 15756) & Plastic-Strain Ratio ‘r’ (ASTM E517 & IS 11999) values.
All tests at TCR Engineering Services are performed in line with the ASTM E8, ASTM A370, ASTM B557 and IS/BS/ISO Standards. TCR has the expertise to determine the mechanical properties of materials and resolve a wide variety of technical problems for the industry:
This procedure that determines the relative ductility of metal that is to be formed (usually sheet, strip, plate, bar & wire). It is also used to determine the soundness and toughness of metal (after welding, etc.) The specimen is usually bent over a specified diameter mandrel. The four general types of bends are free bend, guided bend, semi-guided bend & wrap-around bend. as per ASTM E290, E190, A370 and other IS, BS, ISO standards)
This is a method for assessing the ability of a material to withstand compressive loads. The test is commonly used as a simple measure of the metal workability, particularly in forging and similar bulk deformation processes. Engine mounts, bolster springs, cast products, and similar components are tested to determine load versus displacement
Pipe/Tube Flaring Test, (ASTM A370, ASTM A513, ASTM B153, IS 2335, IS 2501)
This procedure tests the ability of a section of a tube, approximately 4" in length to flare (with a tool having a 60° included angle). This is done through the tube as the mouth of the flare expands to 15% of the inside diameter without cracking or indicating any flaws
Pipe/Tube Flattening Test (ASTM A370, ASTM A513, ASTM B111, IS 2328, IS 2501)
A seamless Pipe/Tube sample, 4" - 6" in length is flattened between parallel plates & welded Pipe/Tube with the weld at 90° to the direction of applied force until opposite walls of the tubing meet. Applications for this test along with the flaring test, include situations where round tubing is to be formed into other shapes
The impact test (ASTM E23, BS EN 10045, ISO 148-1 and IS 1757, IS 1598) is a method for evaluating the toughness and notch sensitivity of engineering materials. It is usually used to understand the energy required by material to deformation before fracture i.e. the toughness of metals but similar tests are used for polymers, ceramics, and composites. Metal industry sectors include Oil and Gas, Aerospace, Power Generation, Automotive, and Nuclear.
The notched test specimen is broken by the impact of a heavy pendulum or hammer falling at a predetermined velocity through a fixed distance. The test measures the energy absorbed by the fractured specimen.
Charpy Impact Test
A test specimen is machined to a 10mm x 10mm (full size) cross-section, with either a "V" or "U" notch. Sub-size specimens are used where the material thickness is restricted. Specimens can be tested down to cryogenic temperatures
IZOD Impact Test
The test specimen is machined to a square or round section, with either one, two or three notches. The specimen is clamped vertically on the anvil with the notch facing the hammer.
Keyhole Impact Test
The steel casting industry uses this type of specimen frequently. The notch is machined to look like a keyhole. It is tested in the same manner as the "V" and "U" notch.
Hardness Testing measures a material’s strength by determining resistance to indentation/penetration by material surface. The hardness test is extremely useful in material selection because it provides a hardness value, which indicates how easily a material can be machined and how well the material will wear. It is defined as the resistance to indentation and it is determined by measuring the permanent depth of the indentation. Simply put, when using a fixed force (load) and a given indenter, the smaller the indentation, the harder the material.
Brinell, ASTM E10, IS 1500-1, ISO 6506-1 Standard
This is a simple indentation test for determining the hardness of a wide variety of materials. The test consists of applying a prescribed load, usually between 500 kg and 3000 kg, for a specified time (10-30 seconds), using a 5 or 10mm diameter tungsten carbide ball on the flat surface of a metal sample
Vickers (Macro indentation) & Knoop hardness ASTM E92, ISO 6507-1 and IS 1501-1 Standard
The Knoop indenter has a polished rhombohedral shape with an included longitudinal angle of 172° 30´ and an included transverse angle of 130° 0´. The narrowness of the indenter makes it ideal for testing specimens with steep hardness gradients and coatings. Knoop is a better choice for hardness testing of hard and brittle materials
Rockwell, ASTM E18 and IS/ BS Standard
This test differs from the Brinell test in the shape of the indenter and in the manner that the number is determined. The Rockwell number represents the difference in depth penetration between two loads. There are two types of Rockwell; Rockwell and Superficial Rockwell. The difference between the two is in the minor and major loads applied to the specimen. The indenter used may be a diamond cone or a hardened ball, depending principally on the characteristics of the material being tested
Vickers (Micro indentation) hardness, ASTM E384, BS EN 1043-2, ISO 6507-1 & IS 1501-1 Standard
A micro indentation is made on the surface of a metal sample. The hardness number is based on the measurements of the indent formed on the surface of the test specimen
Portable Hardness, ASTM E110 and IS/ BS Standard
Facility for Portable hardness testing using rebound-type digital hardness tester is available for carrying out hardness testing at the site. This is particularly useful for large objects and In-situ, where cutting the sample is not possible
Rockwell, ASTM E18, ISO 6508-1 & IS 1586-1 Standard
This test differs from the Brinell test in the shape of the indenter and in the manner that the number is determined. The Rockwell number represents the difference in depth penetration between two loads. There are two types of Rockwell: Rockwell and Superficial Rockwell. The difference between the two is in the minor and major loads applied to the specimen. The indenter used may be a diamond cone or a hardened ball, depending principally on the characteristics of the material being tested
The principle of this test is to break the sample through the weld metal in order to examine the fractured surface. Applying a three-point bend load induces the fracture. The fractured surface is then examined, and the type and location of any weld defect are reported
The procedure consists of performing a chemical analysis and/or mechanical tests with metallography to provide data for the determination of weldability. Weld Engineering provides additional support and recommendations for material usage. If necessary, trial welds can be fully tested and examined to provide final data
Weld Bead Bend Test (WBBT) as per SEP 1390 standard
In the weld Bead Bend Test, the crack arrest behaviour of a material shall be checked. For this purpose, welding bead shall be laid on grooved test plate. Then test plate shall be subjected to bending stress. in doing this, it shall be checked if an incipient crack occurring in the weld metal is arrested by heat affected zone (HAZ) or the base metal when bending without interruption
Nick Break and Weldability
Nick break testing is another simple process that lends itself to learning welding (API 1104 specification), due to its speed and very low cost. It is also used in production runs, where quality is monitored at intervals throughout production. The principle behind it is to take a sample piece, partially cut through it and then break the remainder off. This allows one to ‘see inside the weld’. Various defects and faults can be easily seen by visual inspection including lack of fusion, porosity, slag inclusions etc.
Component Testing and Fasteners
Testing components take on many forms depending on the application and the conditions present in service. TCR routinely tests components under fatigue, vibration, shock, pressure, high and low temperatures, humidity, solar, corrosion, impact, hydrostatic pressure and altitude conditions. Test capacity can vary from small (several inches in size) to large (vehicle size). Test fixtures can be made in-house via 3D drawings or FE models.
Frequently tested components include automotive parts and assemblies (i.e. axles, engine cradles, transmission shafts, shock absorbers, doors, locking enclosures, connecting rods as engine mounts and crankshafts) electronic displays, communication devices, packaged products, pressure vessels, pipes, and building products such as fascia and structural products. Aerospace components, in particular, electronic devices and landing gear assemblies are also tested.
Dynamic loading takes on many forms like impact, vibration, shock, fatigue and high strain rate to name a few. TCR is capable of performing many forms of dynamic tests on specimens, prototypes, and varied assemblies
Fasteners - Wedge, Axial, Proof Load and Torque
Fasteners of all sizes used in every application are critical to the integrity of structures and finished components. In addition to dimensional, chemical composition and metallurgical properties, Mechanical Testing is of paramount importance in determining compliance with specifications and fitness for different purposes
The wedge tensile strength of a hex or square-head fastener, socket-head cap screw or stud is the tensile load that the product is capable of sustaining when stressed with a wedge under the head. The purpose of this test is to obtain the tensile strength and to demonstrate the head quality and ductility of the product
The Axial tension of fasteners is tested in a holder with a load axially applied between the head and a nut, or in a suitable fixture
Proof Load testing of a nut is assembled on a hardened, threaded mandrel or a test bolt, using the tension or compression method. A specified proof load is applied on the nut against the nut. The nut should resist this load without stripping or rupturing and should be removable from the test bolt or mandrel by hand after the load is released. Proof load testing of Bolt/Stud is measure in terms of permanent extension in length after application of specified proof load
The most common way to estimate clamping force is to observe the amount of torque applied to the fastener. This procedure assumes that the relationship between torque and tension is known. The most common measurement tools are handheld torque wrenches
Creep & Stress Rupture Test
Creep is elevated temperature progressive deformation at constant stress. The high temperature is a relative term that is dependent upon the materials involved. Creep rates are used in evaluating materials for boilers, gas turbines, jet engines, ovens or any application that involves high temperatures under load.
The understanding of the elevated temperature behaviour of metals is useful in designing failure resistant systems. A creep test involves a tensile specimen under a constant load maintained at a constant temperature and measurements of strain are then recorded over a period of time to estimate the creep rate of material. Like the Creep Test, Stress rupture test involves a tensile specimen under a constant load at a constant temperature. Stress rupture testing is similar to creep testing apart from the utilization of higher stress than that of creep testing. Stress rupture tests are employed to find out the time it takes for failure and hence stress rupture testing is always continued until failure of the material occurs. Data is plotted similar on a graph and a straight line or best-fit bend is normally obtained at every temperature of interest. The Stress Rupture test is used to determine the time for failure and elongation.
TCR has the facility for conducting Stress rupture test, Creep rupture/Creep test, ACRT & Stress relaxation test as per ASTM E139, E292, IS 340 & ISO 204 specifications.
ACRT (Accelerated Creep Rupture Test)
Now a days ACRT testing methodology is being most popular in industries, it is fast and time saving test procedure. The required initial data to conduct the ACRT can be calculated by using Larson-Miller equation. ACRT test result mostly used to estimate RLA, FFS of boilers as per standards API 530, API 579 respectively.
Static Tensile Test
The measure of the tensile strength & percentage Elongation at maximum force
Cyclic Tensile Test. (100 cycles)
The mechanical splice shall withstand 100 cycles of the stress variation from 5 percent to 90 percent of Yield stress when tested in accordance with the test procedure described in relevant standard without loss of static tensile strength capacity when compared with like a specimen
The permanent extension of a mechanical splice after being loaded to a defined load level. The total slip value measured in accordance with the test procedure described in the respective standard shall not exceed minimum specified values
High Cycle Fatigue Test. (2 million cycles)
The mechanical splice, when tested in accordance with the method given in the respective standards, shall withstand 2 000 000 cycles of varying axial tensile load with a specified stress range, without failure.
Low Cycle Fatigue Test. (10,000 cycles)
The mechanical splice shall withstand 10 000 cycles of alternating tension and compression load when tested in accordance with the test procedure described in the respective standard
Laboratory Testing of Reinforcement bars & Mechanical (Coupler) Splices.
Mechanical splicing of reinforcement bars is the joining of two reinforcement bars end to end using a reinforcement coupler and nowadays it is a new methodology being adopted in construction fields like multi-storage buildings, Bridges etc. Mechanical splices may be reliable under conditions of cyclic loading into the inelastic range and may also be advantageous at locations where inelastic yielding may occur. Mechanical splicing of various diameter bars is often advantageous as this results in less congestion during concreting and faster construction. However, the condition and quality to be ensured even in case of mechanical splicing of bars. Further, the material of the reinforcement coupler should be compatible with the material of the reinforcement bar to be spliced and as well as with the concrete. TCR is providing the services to check the quality as per IS 16172, ASTM A1034, ISO 15835-2 standards. The tests include as below.