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Engineering Advisory

TCR's dedicated engineering and metallurgical consulting team in India is the perfect partner for solving manufacturing and product quality problems. With several years of experience, TCR’s advisory team supports welding engineering, corrosion, material selection queries and heat treatment problems as well. TCR’s in-depth engineering consulting services ensure that clients produce the best possible product right from the initial product design to the final production. 

Failure Analysis and Metallography at TCR Engineering Laboratory, India. Failure Analysis, Metallography, Failure Investigation, India and Middle East
TCR PP Simtech (India) has a reliable and proven Risk based Inspection (RBI) technology process incorporating key guidance from API 580/581 and UK HSE and has been accepted globally as good engineering practice by leading international companies. RBI, Fitness for Service, API 580, Api 581, API 571, India, Refineries, Oil, Petrochemcials. power
material testing lab
storage tank inspection india, ffs, failure, rla


Advanced Consulting Asisstance

TCR's consulting team has deep engineering expertise and has access to a state-of-the-art material testing laboratory that enables them to uncover the root cause of failure and recommend the best solution to prevent recurrence. TCR Engineering provides consulting assistance in several areas that include:

  • Determining the Right Material for a Product

  • Corrosion Engineering, Corrosion Testing and Corrosion Investigations

  • Metallurgical Failure Analysis and Welding Evaluations

  • Investigate the Effect of Environmental Conditions on a Product or Material

  • Manage Quality Control Projects

  • Prepare Material and Process Specifications for In-House Quality Control

  • Compare Vendor or Competitive Products

  • Estimate the Remaining Service Life of a Product or Machine Component

  • Develop Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Plan and TOFD/ Phased Array Procedures

  • Identify Equivalents between Indian and Foreign Specifications

  • Assist to Solve Product Quality Problems

  • Assist in Cost-Benefit Analysis Post Failure Analysis

  • Expert Witness and Opinion Assistance in Case of Trade Conflicts, Materials Disputes and Litigation Issues

  • Creating a Custom Metallurgical Image Analysis Software

  • Ensure Product Compliance with Rohs and WEEE

The consulting practice additionally offers advanced services that include:

  • Finite Element Analysis and Stress Analysis

  • Advanced Materials and Processes

  • Fractography

  • Surface Engineering 

  • Tribology

  • Welding esp. repair welding and cast iron welding

  • Atomized Powder Production (Technology, QA, Application wise Requirements of Powders)

  • Life Cycle Analysis and Engineering Asset Management

  • Global Warming-Role of Tribology & Surface Engineering

  • Thermal Spraying

  • CAD/CAM Modeling

Failure and Root Cause Analysis

Failure and Root Cause Analysis


TCR prides itself for its deep knowledge and has garnered best practices from success stories compiled from over 1800 failure investigation assignments, which include major projects in manufacturing and metallurgical failures on ASME boilers, pressure vessels, gas turbine engine components, oil and gas transmission pipelines, food processing equipment, heat exchangers, medical supplies, refineries, petrochemical plants, aircraft/aerospace, offshore structures, industrial machinery, weldments and ships.

Evaluation Sequence for Conducting Failure analysis

  1. Collection of Background Data and Selection of Samples

  2. Preliminary Examination of the Failed Part 

  3. Complete Metallurgical Analysis of Failed Material 

  4. A Thorough Examination of the Failed Part including Macroscopic and Microscopic Examination and Analysis (Electron Microscopy, If Needed) Tests, If necessary may also include Weld Examination, Case Depth, Decarburization Measurement, Coating/Plating Evaluation, Surface Evaluation and/or Grain Size Determination 

  5. Chemical Analysis (Bulk, Local, Surface Corrosion Products, Deposits or Coating and Microprobe Analysis) Tests to Simulate Environmental and Physical Stress That May Have Played A Role In The Failure 

  6. Analysis Of Fracture Mechanics

  7. Selection and Testing of Alternative Products and/or Procedures That Will Significantly Improve Performance

  8. On-Site Evaluation and Consulting Services and Formulation Of Conclusions and Writing the Report (Including Recommendations)

The Failure Analysis Team’s strength lies in the evaluation of high temperature and high-pressure failures. The Failure Analysis Team at TCR Engineering has experience in the materials space, failure analysis, metallurgical, welding, quality assurance, and forensic engineering fields. The analysis is conducted by engineers holding advanced degrees in metallurgy, mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical engineering.


TCR Engineering works with clients to draw up a plan for failure analysis to efficiently conduct the investigation. A large amount of time and effort is spent in carefully considering the background of failure and studying the general features before the actual investigation begins. The cause of failure is determined using state-of-the-art analytical and mechanical procedures that often includes simulated service testing. Analysis and physical testing, when combined together, locates problems and provides recommendations for effective solutions. 

In the course of the various steps listed below, preliminary conclusions are often formulated. If the probable fundamental cause of the metallurgical failure becomes evident early on in the examination, the rest of the investigation focuses on confirming the probable cause and eliminating other possibilities. The metallurgical failure analyst compiles the results of preliminary conclusions,  carefully considers all aspects of failure including visual examination of a fracture surface, the inspection of a single metallographic specimen and the history of similar failures. The complete evaluation sequence to conduct a Failure Analysis is summarized as under: 

Failure Investigation Report

The investigation team produces detailed written reports to ensure clients fully understand the implications and can independently examine the conclusions:

  1. Description of the Failed Component

  2. Service Condition at the Time of Failure

  3. Prior Service History

  4. Manufacturing and Processing History of Component

  5. Mechanical and Metallurgical Study of Failure

  6. Metallurgical Evaluation of Quality

  7. Summary of Failure Causing Mechanism

  8. Recommendations for Prevention of Similar Failures

  9. Latest Inspection Solutions

Latest Inspection Solutions

TCR team has in-house all the necessary tools for conducting a modern failure analysis. The complete range of equipment at TCR’s network of laboratories include:

  1. Metallurgical Optical Microscope with Image Analysis system LECO 500(USA) with 300X facility. For studying fracture surface at low magnification and to decide areas to be studied at still higher magnification

  2. Scanning Electron Microscope With EDAX For The Study Of High Magnification Fractography in critical situations. To Study Surface Analysis Of Metal, Corrosion Product Or Localized Areas

  3. Stress Analyzer: To Detect the Level of Stresses in Metal

  4. Complete Mechanical and Chemical Testing Equipment 

  5. Dilatometer: To Measure Volume Change while Heating and Cooling

  6. quipment and Accessories Required for Preparation Of Metallographic Samples including Diamond Saw Cutter, Mounting Press, Rough Grinder, Belt Polisher, Wheel Or Disc Polisher, Electrolytic Etcher Polisher and a Microscope with Attachments like Micro-Hardness Testing

  7. Micro Hardness Tester

Risk Based Inspection

Core Benefits of RBI

  • Increased Safety and Equipment Reliability

  • Fewer Planned Shutdowns

  • Fewer Unplanned Shutdowns

  • Longer Inspection Intervals

  • Reduction in Inspection Frequency and Maintenance Costs

  • Effectiveness Evaluation of Inspection Activities

  • Increased Consistency of Inspection Planning

  • Identification of Potential Damage Mechanisms

  • Prioritization of Inspection

  • Identification of Key Process Parameters affecting Degradation Rates

  • Assessment of Proposed Process Changes that could Impact Degradation Rates

  • Documentation of Current Plant Configuration And Materials of Construction

  • Improved Team Working And Communication between all Departments

Plant and equipments covered under TCR’s RBI technology process

  • All Types of Pressure Vessels including Reactors, Furnaces, Strippers, Absorbers, Distillation Columns, Heat Exchangers, Crackers, Crude Heaters and Other Fired Heaters, Reformers, Utility Power Boilers and Associated Equipment

  • Interconnected Piping between these Items Within The Plant Site

  • Over Ground and Buried Cross Country Fluid (Gas Or Liquid) Distribution Pipelines

  •  All Types Of Storage Tanks

TCR's Continued Support for Plant Sites Includes:

  • RBI Technology Implementation Services 

  • Total Asset Integrity Management Technology Support 

  • Fitness-For-Service (API 579, BS 7910) and Remaining Life Assessments 

  • Root Cause Material Damage Assessments, Metallurgical Investigation, and Failure Analysis 

  • Training & Technology Transfer To In-House Engineers to Effectively Manage Plant Integrity

However, it must be recognized that  apart from the reliability of the RBI technology process for delivering the set objectives and desired benefits, several other factors like the inclusion of best practices, the comprehensiveness of the team study method, the competence of the engineers involved from the plant site and the quality of the output are equally responsible. 

The approach to risk-based inspection is based on developing a strong cooperation between the plant personnel and TCR PP SIMTECH experts. The adopted process of guided expert judgment is based on operational experiences and a strong technical basis for evaluation of possible degradation mechanisms. TCR believes that incorporation of these fundamental requirements in the evolution and development of the RBI technology process has made PP SIMTECH the global leader in this technology and positively different from the others and the evidence lies in published testimonials from various clients.

The reliable and proven Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) technology process developed by PP SIMTECH (UK), with guidance from API 580/581 and UK HSE, has been accepted globally by leading international companies as a good engineering practice. PP SIMTECH has successfully implemented RBI at BP, Dow Chemicals, GPIC, ADNOC-Fertil, Norsk Hydro, BASF, INEOS. In India, PP SIMTECH (UK) has partnered with TCR Engineering Services and this partnership has resulted in the formation of a new joint-venture  – TCR PP SIMTECH Pvt. Ltd.


Risk Based Inspection

rbiAsyst™, a fully auditable and transparent software system calculates the risk profile of an item, based on its "active" and "potential" damage mechanism. The technology ensures that the resulting inspection interval for the item is reliably optimized in a safe and cost-effective manner. Operating limits are also defined by the RBI team to prevent an increase in damage rate or initiation of a new damage mechanism.  If business or safety risks are unacceptable, risk-mitigating options are also recommended as a part of the output. TCR’s RBI team study improves both, the team’s working and knowledge sharing at the plant site along with enhancing communication across all departments. Additionally, it captures valuable plant knowledge from senior engineers in the team, encourages training of junior engineers and augments corporate memory. 

The technology is designed to facilitate successful implementation of RBI technology processes at plant sites across oil and petrochemical industries, chemical, fertilizer and power plants. The technology causes an increase in plant availability, ensures cost saving, allows for a minimum duration of shutdowns, encourages changes in inspection strategies and intervals, and promotes improved safety compliance.

The TCR PP SIMTECH has an experienced team of professionals that include Mechanical Engineers, Metallurgists, Corrosion Engineers, NDT Experts, RBI Experts and Project Managers, that provide plants with RBI, Fitness-For-Service (API 579), Material Damage Mechanisms Assessment, Metallurgical Investigation & Failure Analysis and In-service Inspection. The RBI team study, facilitated by TCR PP SIMTECH and rbiAsyst™ software, helps all plant management and operations team to identify and resolve complex technical issues associated with static equipment including reactors, furnaces, strippers, distillation columns, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, reformers, boilers, fired heaters with associated items such as interconnected piping and storage tanks. 

Fitness for Service


Fitness for Service

TCR undertakes Fitness For Service (FFS) Assessment based on Level 2 BS 7910 standards and API 579. Our fracture mechanics methodology and its application have been successfully proven worldwide across industries, including nuclear pressure vessels to high consequence items in the exploration, refining, petrochemical and construction industry.

A process, plant, and equipment are often exposed to corrosive environments and/or elevated temperatures. Under these conditions, the material used in the equipment can degrade or age with time. Important equipment such as pressure vessels, piping, and storage tanks become older, the plant operator must decide if they can continue to operate safely and reliably to avoid injuries to personnel and public, environmental damage, and unexpected shutdowns. Fitness for service assessment procedures provide a means for helping the plant operator make these decisions on established engineering principles. 

Fitness for service assessment is a multidisciplinary engineering analysis that ensures all process and plant equipment such as pressure vessels, piping, and tanks operate safely and reliably for the desired period of operation and until the next turnaround or planned shutdown occurs in the future. API Recommended Practice 579 provides a general procedure for assessing fitness for service. This assessment procedure evaluates the remaining strength of the equipment in its current state, which may have degraded from its original condition. Common degradation mechanisms include corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, hydrogen attack, embrittlement, fatigue, high-temperature creep and mechanical distortion. Methods for evaluating the strength and remaining service life of equipment containing these types of degradation are presented and reviewed

Common Reasons for Assessing The Fitness for Service of Equipment Include:

  • Discovery Of A Flaw Such As A Locally Thin Area (LTA) or Crack

  • Failure to Meet Current Design Standards

  • Plans for Operating Under More Severe Conditions than Originally Expected

Outcome of Fitness for Service Assessment

  • Decision to Run, Alter, Repair, Monitor, or Replace the Equipment

  • Guidance on Inspection Interval for the Equipment

Fitness for Service Assessment uses Analytical Methods to Evaluate Flaws, Damage and Material Aging Based On:

  • Stress Analysis may be performed using Standard Handbook or Design Code Formulas or by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA). With modern computer technology, the use of FEA is quite common. 

  • Fitness for Service Assessment requires both, knowledge of past operating conditions and a forecast of future operating conditions. Interaction with operations personnel is required to obtain this data

  • Non-Destructive Examination (NDE): NDE is used to locate, size and characterize flaws

  •  Material Properties: The material properties include information on material damage mechanisms and behavior in the service environment, especially on the effects of corrosion and temperature


RLA and Condition Assessment of Boilers

RLA & Condition Assessment

TCR has developed expertise in assessing the current condition of boilers and also their remaining life. At TCR, both Level–II assessment and Level-III assessment is undertaken for RLA. Adopting a pragmatic approach, efforts are directed towards collecting data on the component/equipment history in addition to interviewing external experts familiar with the operation details. All the details are evaluated vis-à-vis the testing and studies are conducted at a later stage using either a:

CALCULATION BASED APPROACH: Calculation procedures are often employed to determine the expanded lives of components under creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue conditions. From plant records, information about temperature and cycling history is gathered and by use of standard material properties and damage rules, the fractional life expanded up to a given point in time can be estimated. 


DESIGN APPROACH: Components which operate under creep regime are generally designed on the basis of yield strength, tensile strength and fatigue strength with suitable safety factors. Under normal conditions, deformation and fracture are not time dependent. As long as the applied stresses do not exceed the design stresses, these components should last indefinitely; but in practice, various factors cause the reduction in life.

Approach to Remaining Life Assessment

  1. Understanding the actual degradation mechanism 

    • Fatigue 

    • Thermal Fatigue 

    • Thermo Mechanical Fatigue 

    • Thermal Aging 

    • Creep 

    • Embitterment 

    • Corrosion 

  2. Visual Examination Of Physical Properties

  3. NDT involving In-situ Metallography, Ultrasonic Testing, Magnetic Particle Inspection, DP Test, Ferrite Measurement

  4. Stress analysis: To know the strength of the material and check ruptures

  5. Non-Destructive Testing: To provide a good insight into the component integrity

  6. Laboratory Testing: To provide valuable information about the material soundness

  7. Judgment of Fitness of the Equipment: Based on available data

  8. Suggestions on Repairs: If required, repairing of the equipment is suggested, for life extension

  9. Judgment of Remaining Life Based on Analysis: Estimates for remaining life is carried out. In addition to this, periodic inspection procedures are spelled out to monitor the health of the equipment during the course of operation. If the results reveal an operational mistake, restriction in free movement by thermal expansion or any other prevailing damage mechanism, then preventive maintenance approach is formulated

Definition of Component Life

  • History-based criteria: 30 to 40 years have elapsed, statistics of prior failures indicate impending failure, frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical, calculations indicate life exhaustion

  • Performance-based criteria: Severe loss of efficiency indicating component degradation, large crack manifested by leakage, severe vibration or other malfunction, catastrophic burst

  • Inspection- based criteria: Dimensional changes have occurred, leading to distortions and changes in clearances, inspection shows microscopic damage, inspection shows crack initiation, inspection shows large crack approaching critical size

  • Criteria based on Destructive evaluation: Metallography or mechanical testing indicates life exhaustion

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