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Conventional NDT Services

In-situ Metallography, Replica Interpretation and NDT Field Services in India by TCR. Metallography, replica, ndt, nde, india. TCR Engineering Services, India has qualified and experienced NDT field services team that regularly conducts In-situ Metallography on-site at major plants, refineries and process industries. We also have SEM and can undertkae replica interpretation at our laboratory. TCR Engineering Services, Material Testing, Laboratory, Outsource Analytical, India.
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Positive Material Identification, India, PMI Tests. PMI, positive material, testing, xrf, gds, portable, petro-chemical, TCR Engineering Services, Laboratory, India, china, middle-east. Positive material identification, pmi, positive material, evaluation, pmi test, TCR Engineering Laboratory, India, China, Middle East. TCR Engineering Services, Material Testing, Laboratory, Outsource Analytical, India
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TCR Engineering helium leak, vacumm testing, healium leak, alcatel, india. TCR's technicians are higly mobile and perform helium leak testing on heat exchangers, steam turbines and condensers, distillation towers, buried pipelines and many other systems and components.
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NDT, Non destructive testing, nondestructive, in-situ, metallography, portable, TCR Engineering Services, Laboratory, India. Non Destructive Testing and In-Situ Metallography at TCR Engineering Laboratory, India and China, Middle East. Non Destructive Testing, Ultrasonic, Radiography, In-Situ Metallography, NDT, Magnetic Particle, Dye Penetrant, India


In-Situ Metallography

TCR Engineering under the NDT service performs In-Situ Metallography to determine in-service degradation of critical components of process and plants operating under high temperature, high-pressure and corrosive atmospheres. The technique enables real-time component condition monitoring and health assessments. TCR’s Metallurgists have strong experience in the interpretation of microstructures and have more than 15,000 replica microstructure interpretations, logged and captured in its proprietary database. These databases contain extensive information from various plants, captured over the course of four decades of service. The database also includes rare collections of varying microstructure damage levels from various industries such as power, oil and gas, petrochemical, fertilizers among others.

The In-Situ Metallography team at TCR is highly skilled in the art of replica preparation. TCR has custom-developed special purpose in-situ polishing devices that assist in metallographic polishing under difficult locations and allows the field services team to carry out high-quality replication even on warm components.

The In-Situ metallography is performed for the following areas:

TCR also provides microstructure survey for critical components viz., Boilers, Pipelines, Reactors and Vessels for monitoring and health assessments. TCR has developed a databank of critical components of process plant equipment by periodical monitoring for preventive maintenance and planning for inventory control. With this, TCR can provide suggestions on repair and welding of used components of process plants.

In-situ Metallography and replication is used for microstructural analysis while examining large components that cannot be easily moved or destructive sample preparation is difficult or not permissible. The testing allows quick on-site evaluation of a component’s metallurgical and heat treatment condition and assists investigators while carrying out a remaining life assessment study or a failure analysis project.

  • To undertake microstructure survey for critical components viz., Boilers, Pipelines, Reactors and Vessels for condition monitoring/health assessment

  • To provide suggestions about their welding used components of process plants

  • To check the quality of the microstructure of components for intended service, before putting it into use 

  • To find out in-service degradation of critical components of the process plants operating under high temperature/high pressure/corrosive atmosphere

  • To conduct damage Assessment of fire-affected equipment of the plants

  • To develop a databank of critical components of process plant equipment by periodical monitoring for preventive maintenance and planning for inventory control

In-Situ Metallography


Core capabilities for Metallurgical Replica Interpretation

TCR, at their material testing laboratories in Mumbai and Baroda, has a state-of-the-art Inverted Metallurgical Microscope, GX5, from Olympus Corporation, Japan. This Inverted Metallurgical Microscope allows expert metallurgists at TCR to perform Volume Fraction Measurement by point count method as per E-562 used for Duplex Steel and Carbide Morphology Distribution as per STAHL-EISEN-PRUFBLATT 1520 (SEP-1520) German chart for checking microstructures.
At material testing laboratories in Mumbai and Baroda, India, TCR has a state-of-the-art Inverted Metallurgical Microscope, GX51, from Olympus Corporation, Japan. This Inverted Metallurgical Microscope allows expert metallurgists at TCR to perform Volume Fraction Measurement by point count method as per E-562 used for Duplex Steel and Carbide Morphology Distribution as per STAHL-EISEN-PRUFBLATT 1520 (SEP-1520) German chart for checking microstructure.

TCR Engineering Services has undertaken In-situ Metallography projects at major plants of reputed clients including, Alstom Projects India Limited, Vadodara (Worked on more than 20 RLA projects), BARC (Mumbai), Heavy Water Board (Mumbai), BARC, Reliance Industries Limited (Jamnagar and Hazira), SPIC-SMO, Gujarat Electricity Board, Ahmedabad Electricity Board, GSFC Limited, GNFC Limited, IOCL (Vadodara), L & T, Hindustan Lever Limited (9 Boiler RLA Work), Narmada Chematur Petrochemicals Limited, Bharuch and many more. TCR performs Metallurgical Replica Interpretation for NDT Corrosion Control Services (NDT-CCS) in Saudi Arabia as well.


At TCR, the 5 following sets of In-Situ Metallography kits and equipment are available:

  • Insipol 2000 And Advanced Electrolytic Flow Type Polisher And Etcher

  • Portable Rough Grinder With Self-Adhesive Papers

  • Portable Fine Polishing (Mini Grinder)

  • Portable Microscope Capable Up To 400X Magnification

  • Replica Kit: Used With Specialized Plastic Based Slides For Replica Preservation (For Longer Durability And Ease Of Handling On Site)



  • Objective Of In-Situ Metallography - Condition Assessment, Fire/Damage Assessment, Remaining Life Assessment, Or Baseline Data Generation

  • Material of Construction with Exact Specification

  • Location of Replication with Sketch

  • Process Parameters and Design Parameters

  • Service Life of The Component at the Time of Replication

  • Any History Of Previous Failures at the Location of Replication


Positive Material Identification (PMI)

The PMI division at TCR Engineering Services has an expert engineering and inspection workforce to undertake incoming material inspection and can provide on-site alloy verification for quality control and stock control purposes. TCR can analyze both melt and weld for comprehensive maintenance assessment.

TCR provides PMI services to a number of metal producers, foundries, metal fabricators, scrap yards, scrap traders in the industry, electric utility companies, fossil and nuclear power plants, refining and petrochemical industry, construction engineering, and the Chemical process industry.  

The range of equipment available at TCR for undertaking Positive Material Identification (PMI) is unparalleled in India. TCR’s on-site inspection and the testing team have over 12 highly sophisticated Portable Alloy Analyzer Spectrometers which can in-situ non-destructively and accurately measure the chemical composition of materials. Using these spectrometers, TCR’s engineers can provide elemental identification and quantitative determination regardless of form, size, and shape. No samples need to be cut for PMI.  TCR can also deploy the portable optical emission spectrometer that can detect C, S, P, Mn and Si. Elements that can be identified using PMI include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, Nb, and Mo.

The team also conducts positive material identification test to detect Carbon composition on-site using the ARC Met 8000, a portable optical emission spectrometer. The portable optical emission analyzer is designed to identify all the key elements in metals, especially where highest accuracy, analysis of light elements (like C, Al, S, P, Mg, Si) or sorting of low alloys and aluminum is needed. For example, it is ideal for separation of 316 H (>0.04% C) and 316 L (<0.03% C).

Using portable XRF analyzers, TCR offers scrap traders in India all the necessary data needed to take fast, informed decisions about material purchases along with the input and speed required to sort large quantities of materials, and hence utilize sales opportunities efficiently. Inspection services team of TCR supports the recycle and resell scrap traders in enhancing their profit margins by measuring precious metals in electronics - Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd.  TCR also supports a scrap trader to perform scrap classification service efficiently. From titanium alloys to stainless steels to nickel superalloys to red metals to exotics, TCR can quickly provide fast, reliable results that the industry demands.


A wide range of alloys can be analyzed on site using PMI including::

  • Carbon and Low Alloy Steels 

  • Copper Alloys

  • Stainless and High Alloy Steels 

  • Aluminum Alloys

  • Nickel Alloys 

  • Austenitics Duplex and Super

  • Titanium Alloys 

  • Zirconium Alloys


TCR Engineering's PMI equipment includes


Portable X-Ray Florescence (XRF) based Instruments:

  1. XMet 3000TX (2 Nos.) from Metorex, Finland

  2. Niton XLt (2 Nos.) from Niton Corporation, Finland

  3. XMet 53000TX and 3000T from Metorex, Finland

  4. Innov-X Alpha Analyzer from Innov-X Systems, Netherlands


Portable Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) Instrument:

  1. ARC-MET 8000 MobileLab


TCR’s Positive Material Identification service is fast becoming an integral part of the safety management process in petroleum refining, petrochemical, and electric power generation industries. TCR has provided PMI services to over 700 projects including major oil and petrochemical installations in India, Hong Kong, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, Dubai, Kuwait, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other parts of Middle East in addition to serving North America and significant parts of Europe. Some PMI projects were undertaken in conjunction with the third-party inspection of EIL, Lloyds, KTI, TUV, DNV & BARC.

Positive Material Identification



Ultrasonic methods of NDT employs the use of beams of sound waves (vibrations) of short wavelength and high frequency that is transmitted from a probe and detected by the same or other probes. Usually, pulsed beams of ultrasound are used and in the simplest instruments a single, handheld probe is placed on the specimen surface.

An oscilloscope display with a time base shows the time it takes for an ultrasonic pulse to travel to a reflector (a flaw, the back surface or other free surfaces) in terms of distance traveled across the oscilloscope screen. The height of the reflected pulse is related to the flaw size as seen from the transmitter probe. The relationship of flaw size, distance and reflectivity are complex, and a considerable skill is required to interpret the display.


At TCR, complex multi-probe systems are also used with mechanical probe movement and digitization of signals, followed by computer interpretation.

Ultrasonic examinations are performed for the detection and sizing of internal defects, flaws or discontinuities in piping, castings, forgings, weldments or other components. Exact sizing techniques have been developed to detect and monitor progressive cracking in a variety of equipment.


TCR has in-house capability to undertake Automated UT using Time of Flight Diffraction technique (ToFD) in India as per code case 181 for piping, code case 2235 for pressure vessels and API 650 appendix U for storage tanks.


With the dye penetrant method, a penetrating liquid is applied to the surface of the component in order to enter the discontinuity or crack. Subsequently, after clearing the excess penetrant from the surface, the penetrant that exudes or is drawn back out of the crack, is observed.


Liquid penetrant testing is applied to any non-porous clean material, metallic or non-metallic, but is unsuitable for dirty or very rough surfaces. Penetrants can contain a dye to make the indication visible under white light, or a fluorescent material that fluoresces under the suitable ultra-violet light. Fluorescent penetrants are usually used when maximum flaw sensitivity is required.

TCR can detect cracks as narrow as 150 nanometers using this method. 


TCR's team of Certified Welding Inspectors in India (CWI) can pinpoint exactly which testing is necessary to qualify a weld, weld procedure, or individual welders. Each welding code follows three main categories of Welding Qualification viz. Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), Welding Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR), and Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ)


At TCR, non-destructive visual inspections are performed on-site or at the laboratory facility based on the requirements of the client and as per their specifications. Industries utilizing this service include Fabrication, Construction, Automotive, Power Generation and Transportation. Inspections can be performed at the laboratory facility or onsite. These inspections are performed to meet IS, BS, ASTM, AWS, ASME (American Society for Mechanical Engineers) and many other standards


As per ASTM E110, the testing is done by TCR for on-site applications as well as for very large samples. TCR’s portable hardness unit performs the hardness testing by applying a 5 kg vickers load indenter and electronically converting the values to a preferred scale


TCR undertakes inspection of paint and/or coating, applied to metal surfaces. The paint and coating inspection team at TCR is fully equipped and has at its disposal, Wet paint thickness gauge(s), Dry paint film thickness gauge(s), Holiday detector(s), Hygrometer with Dew Point calculator and Metal surface thermometer.

The expert paint and coating inspectors at TCR are responsible for monitoring and verifying to ensure that all the work inspected comprehensively conforms with the requirements of the relevant code, specification and/or standard with respect to the paint/coating procedure, the physical application as well as the physical examination, including testing.

Senior TCR paint inspectors are qualified BGas (British Gas Corporation) and are NACE certified. The inspectors are responsible for verifying the following requirements:

  • The Blasting and Coating Materials ​

  • The Blasting and Coating Equipment 

  • The Temperature and Humidity 

  • The Surface Condition 

  • The Application Procedure(S)

TCR's expert inspectors are responsible for the preparation of precise, yet comprehensive records that include all critical aspects of:  

  • Materials Control and Identification

  • Climatic Conditions and Surface Condition

  • Details Of Abrasive(S) and Application Procedure

  •  Abrasive/Wire Brush Standard

  • Details Of Coating and Application Procedure

  • Equipment Calibration

  •  Inspection Results


PHYSICAL: TCR's state-of-the-art laser alignment devices, microprocessor controlled x-ray machines and automatic film processors, ensure high quality, rapid speed, and hence offer the most efficient radiographic services in the industry.


DIGITAL USING COMPUTER AIDED RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (CART): TCR with its computer-aided generation of radiographic images, uses linear array detector systems in place of traditional film. The CART Industrial Inspection System works on the basis of differential densities. When a product passes through the conveyor system, a grey scale X-Ray image of the product is created. Different densities/thicknesses show up in the image as shades of grey. The image is captured from the data and displayed through the control panel monitors. It offers several Image enhancement controls including zoom, contrast, brightness, etc. Advanced Software Algorithms clearly and accurately highlights discontinuities in the image in order to qualify samples as per standards.


The Magnetic Particle Inspection method of Non-Destructive testing is a used by TCR for locating surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic material. Depending on its operation on the face when the material or part under test is magnetized, discontinuities that lie in a direction generally transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. This causes a leakage field, and therefore, the presence of the discontinuity is detected by using finely divided ferromagnetic particles applied over the surface, some of these particles being gathered and held by the leakage field. This magnetically held collection of particles forms an outline of the discontinuity and indicates its location, size, shape and extent.


At TCR, dry magnetic particle examinations and wet fluorescent magnetic particle examinations are performed on ferromagnetic materials to detect surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities. Specialized wet fluorescent magnetic particle techniques are available for black light internal examinations of equipment through borescopes.


Various liquid penetrant examination methods are utilized to detect open or surface cracks or defects in materials. Red dye or fluorescent penetrants, as well as various types of wet and dry developers, are utilized under this method of examination by TCR

Helium Leak testing in India is performed to detect and locate leaks in pressure containment parts and structures. This includes welded, brazed, adhesion-bonded and other assemblies. TCR Helium Leak Testing instrument has a roughing capacity of 10 m3/h (7 cfm) with usable helium sensitivity in the 10-11 range. The unit has a dedicated sniffing unit, based on a well-proven leak testing concept, and is also available for outboard leak testing applications.


Dye Penetrant
Ultrasonic Inspection
Magnetic Particle Inspection
Liquid Penetrant Examination
Leak Testing
Certified Welder Inspectors
Visual Inspection Services
Portable Hardness
Paint & Coating Thickness
Radiography Inspection
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